HypertrophyHypertrophy results from an increase in cell size, whereas stems from an increase in cell numberHypertrophy (, from Greek ὑπέρ 'excess' + τροφή 'nourishment') is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component. It is distinguished from, in which the cells remain approximately the same size but increase in number.
Although hypertrophy and hyperplasia are two distinct processes, they frequently occur together, such as in the case of the -induced proliferation and enlargement of the cells of the during.Eccentric hypertrophy is a type of hypertrophy where the walls and chamber of a hollow organ undergo growth in which the overall size and volume are enlarged. It is applied especially to the of heart. Are added in series, as for example in (in contrast to, a type of, where sarcomeres are added in parallel). Forensic post-mortem examination of a case of, showing thickening of the.
SymptomsThe severity of symptoms in people who have prostate gland enlargement varies, but symptoms tend to gradually worsen over time. Common signs and symptoms of BPH include:. Frequent or urgent need to urinate. Increased frequency of urination at night (nocturia). Difficulty starting urination.
Weak urine stream or a stream that stops and starts. Dribbling at the end of urination. Inability to completely empty the bladderLess common signs and symptoms include:.
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Urinary tract infection. Inability to urinate. Blood in the urineThe size of your prostate doesn't necessarily determine the severity of your symptoms. Some men with only slightly enlarged prostates can have significant symptoms, while other men with very enlarged prostates can have only minor urinary symptoms.In some men, symptoms eventually stabilize and might even improve over time. Other possible causes of urinary symptomsConditions that can lead to symptoms similar to those caused by enlarged prostate include:. Urinary tract infection.
Inflammation of the prostate (prostatitis). Narrowing of the urethra (urethral stricture). Scarring in the bladder neck as a result of previous surgery. Bladder or kidney stones. Far cry 4 map. Problems with nerves that control the bladder. Cancer of the prostate or bladderWhen to see a doctorIf you're having urinary problems, discuss them with your doctor. Even if you don't find urinary symptoms bothersome, it's important to identify or rule out any underlying causes.
Untreated, urinary problems might lead to obstruction of the urinary tract.If you're unable to pass any urine, seek immediate medical attention. Superpower chess 2017 games. Comparing normal and enlarged prostate glandsAt normal size, the prostate gland is about the size and shape of a walnut or golf ball. When enlarged, the prostate may obstruct urine flow from the bladder and out the urethra.The prostate gland is located beneath your bladder. The tube that transports urine from the bladder out of your penis (urethra) passes through the center of the prostate.
When the prostate enlarges, it begins to block urine flow.Most men have continued prostate growth throughout life. In many men, this continued growth enlarges the prostate enough to cause urinary symptoms or to significantly block urine flow.It isn't entirely clear what causes the prostate to enlarge. However, it might be due to changes in the balance of sex hormones as men grow older. Risk factorsRisk factors for prostate gland enlargement include:. Aging. Prostate gland enlargement rarely causes signs and symptoms in men younger than age 40.
About one-third of men experience moderate to severe symptoms by age 60, and about half do so by age 80. Family history. Having a blood relative, such as a father or a brother, with prostate problems means you're more likely to have problems. Diabetes and heart disease. Studies show that diabetes, as well as heart disease and use of beta blockers, might increase the risk of BPH. Lifestyle.
Obesity increases the risk of BPH, while exercise can lower your risk.ComplicationsComplications of an enlarged prostate can include:. Sudden inability to urinate (urinary retention). You might need to have a tube (catheter) inserted into your bladder to drain the urine. Some men with an enlarged prostate need surgery to relieve urinary retention.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs). Inability to fully empty the bladder can increase the risk of infection in your urinary tract.
If UTIs occur frequently, you might need surgery to remove part of the prostate. Bladder stones. These are generally caused by an inability to completely empty the bladder. Bladder stones can cause infection, bladder irritation, blood in the urine and obstruction of urine flow. Bladder damage. A bladder that hasn't emptied completely can stretch and weaken over time.
As a result, the muscular wall of the bladder no longer contracts properly, making it harder to fully empty your bladder. Kidney damage. Pressure in the bladder from urinary retention can directly damage the kidneys or allow bladder infections to reach the kidneys.Most men with an enlarged prostate don't develop these complications. However, acute urinary retention and kidney damage can be serious health threats.Having an enlarged prostate is not believed to increase your risk of developing prostate cancer. Wein AJ, et al., eds. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: Etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and natural history. In: Campbell-Walsh Urology.
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