A return to the child-like bliss of ultra running. Selfishly, I signed up for Cruel Jewel for me, and for me alone. It was a return. A return to the child-like bliss I got from enduring 130°C temperatures running in Death Valley, to the bitter cold I endured at the Arrowhead 135 ultra, to the long, lonely nights I faced at PLAIN 100 early in my career. Cruel Jewels is a standard three puzzle match game but comes with its own unique charm that makes it a great game for puzzle fans. The game packs in plenty of different game modes with catchy tunes and voice overs to keep you playing.
The Black Prince's Ruby is a large, irregular cabochon red spinel weighing 170 carats (34 g) set in the cross pattée above the Cullinan II diamond at the front of the Imperial State Crown of England. The spinel is one of the oldest parts of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, with a history dating back to the middle of the 14th century. It has been in the possession of England's rulers since it was given in 1367 to its namesake, Edward of Woodstock (the 'Black Prince').
All red gemstones used to be referred to[by whom?] as rubies or 'balas rubies'. It wasn't until 1783 that spinels were chemically differentiated from rubies. A red spinel is a compound of magnesium, iron, oxygen, and chromium, while a ruby is the mineral corundum. The rarity of this spinel, however, is that it is the biggest uncut spinel in the world, given that it has only been polished slightly, and has never received a proper cut, gemologically speaking.
Don Pedro of Seville
The Black Prince's Ruby dates back to the middle of the 14th century as the possession of Abū Sa'īd, the ArabMuslim Prince of Granada. At that time, the rule of Castile was being centralized to Seville and the Moorish Kingdom of Granada was being systematically attacked and reverted to Castilian rule as a part of the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian peninsula. Abū Sa'īd in particular was confronted by the belligerency of nascent Castile under the rule of Peter of Castile, also known to history as Don Pedro the Cruel. According to historical accounts, Abū Sa'īd wished to surrender to Don Pedro, but the conditions he offered were unclear. What is clear is that Don Pedro welcomed his coming to Seville. It is recorded that he greatly desired Abū Sa'īd's wealth. When Abū Sa'īd met with Don Pedro, the King had Abū Sa'īd's servants killed and may have personally stabbed Sa'īd to death himself. When Sa'īd's corpse was searched, the spinel was found and added to Don Pedro's possessions.
In 1366, Don Pedro's illegitimate brother, Henry of Trastámara, led a revolt against Don Pedro. Lacking the power to put down the revolt unaided, Don Pedro made an alliance with the Black Prince, the son of Edward III of England. The revolt was successfully put down and the Black Prince demanded the ruby in exchange for the services he had rendered. While historians speculate that this was contrary to Don Pedro's desires, he had just suffered a costly civil war and was in no position to decline. It can be assumed that the Black Prince took the Ruby back to England, although it is absent from historical records until 1415.
A wartime adornment
During his campaign in France, Henry V of England wore a gem-encrusted helmet that included the Black Prince's Ruby. In the Battle of Agincourt on 25 October 1415, the French Duke of Alençon struck Henry on the head with a battleaxe, and Henry nearly lost both the helmet and his life. The battle was won by Henry's forces and the Black Prince's Ruby was saved. Richard III is supposed to have worn the gemstone in his helmet at the Battle of Bosworth, where he died.
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Henry VIII's inventory of 1521 mentions 'a great balas ruby' set in the Tudor Crown, thought to be the Black Prince's Ruby. It remained there until the time of Oliver Cromwell in the 17th century. With the exception of the Coronation Chair and several other items, Cromwell had the principal symbols of the king's power – the Crown Jewels – disassembled and sold, and the gold was melted down and made into coins. What happened to the Black Prince's Ruby, then valued at £4 (equivalent to £537 as of 2019), during the Commonwealth of England is not clear, but it came back into the possession of Charles II when the monarchy was restored in 1660. At the coronation of Queen Victoria in 1838, she was crowned with a new Imperial State Crown made for her by Rundell and Bridge, with 3,093 gems, including the spinel at the front. This was remade in 1937 into the current, lighter, crown. A plaquette on the reverse of the gemstone commemorates the crown's history.
- ^ ab'The Imperial State Crown'. Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 31701.
- ^Sir Thomas Butler (1989). The Crown Jewels and Coronation Ceremony. Pitkin. p. 6. ISBN978-0-85372-467-4.
- ^'Spinel'. Gemological Institute of America. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
- ^Elie L. Ménasché (1954). Ceylon: Island of Gems. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 18. ISBN978-81-206-1932-6.
- ^The Jewelers' Circular. 99. Jewelers' Circular Company. 1930. p. 121.
- ^John Plowfeld (1521). 'King Henry VIII's Jewel Book'. In Edward Trollope (ed.). Associated Architectural Societies Reports and Papers. 17. James Williamson. pp. 158.
- ^Jennifer Loach; G. W. Bernard; Penry Williams (1999). Edward VI. Yale University Press. p. 36. ISBN978-0-300-07992-0.
- ^George Herbert Smith (1962). Gemstones. Pitman. p. 247.(calling the valuation 'absurdly low').
- ^UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). 'The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)'. MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
The Crystal Palace and its contents, // Public DomainNow part of Queen Elizabeth's crown, the Koh-i-Noor diamond (Persian for 'Mountain of Light”) is believed to have been extracted from the Golcondas mine in India , the original home of many of the world's most famous gems. For a time, it served as the eye of an idol of a Hindu goddess (or so the story goes) and stayed within various Indian dynasties until coming into the possession of the founder of the Mughal Empire, Babur. Shah Jahan, the emperor who built the Taj Mahal, incorporated the stone into his Peacock Throne, but his son had him imprisoned in a fort after a coup. Shortly thereafter, an inept Venetian gemcutter reduced the stone—which had reported started out close to 800 carats—down to 186 carats. View this post on Instagramon Jul 14, 2018 at 10:45pm PDTDon't believe everything you read about the Delhi. For one thing, it's not a sapphire but an amethyst, and the 'curse' surrounding it seems to have been the invention of the scientist, writer, polymath and Persian scholar Edward Heron-Allen.to a curator at London's Natural History Museum, Heron-Allen's daughter donated the gem, mounted in a ring in the form of a snake, to the museum in January 1944. The ring came alongside a letter, which claimed the stone 'was looted from the treasure of the Temple of the God Indra at Cawnpore during the Indian mutiny in 1855 sic and brought to this country by Colonel W.
Ferris of the Bengal Cavalry. From the day he possessed it he was unfortunate.' According to the letter, after Colonel Ferris died the gem was passed on to his son, then to Heron-Allen, who in turn passed it onto friends who suffered what the museum calls a 'trail of suicides, apparitions, disasters and failed careers.' Heron-Allen eventually packaged the stone inside seven boxes and deposited it with his bankers, instructing them that the gem shouldn't see the light of day until 33 years after his death. His daughter waited less than 12 months before donating it to the museum, and the institution has so far resisted the letter's recommendation to 'cast it into the sea.' The museum's scientists think Heron-Allen likely fabricated the legend to lend credibility to a short story he wrote in 1921 called 'The Purple Sapphire.' He may have even had the ring created to lend credence to the story.
The gem is now on display at the museum's Vault Collections, where it doesn't seem to cause any particular harm to visitors. Star of India. Daniel Torres, Jr.,From a certain angle it looks more like a sea creature, but the Star of India is actually the world's largest known gem-quality blue star sapphire.
The 'star' inside and the milky appearance of the stone are formed by minuscule fibers from the mineral rutile, which reflect light—a phenomenon known as asterism.The gem is said to have been mined under mysterious circumstances in Sri Lanka three centuries ago. But its most famous moment came on the night of October 29, 1964, when three jewel thieves broke into the American Museum of Natural History and made off with about in stolen jewels (about $3 million today), including the Star of India, from the J.P.
Morgan gem hall. The batteries in the display case alarm had been dead for months, the tops of the hall's windows were open for ventilation, and no security guard had been assigned to the room. The jewels weren't even insured, reportedly because premiums were prohibitive.Fortunately, most of the gems, including the Star of India, were recovered from a Miami Trailways bus terminal locker shortly thereafter. But stories of a 'curse' surrounding the Star of India have remained ever since.
The Black Prince's Ruby. View this post on Instagramon Jul 19, 2016 at 4:58pm PDTThis gem is the big, deep-red stone set into the middle of England's Imperial State Crown, the one you've seen a thousand times in coronation photos.
It's not actually a ruby but a red spinel, and for this reason it's sometimes called 'The Great Imposter.' It's also a link to some pretty bloody historical events.The stone has belonged to English rulers since the 14th century, when it was given to Edward of Woodstock, also known as the 'Black Prince.' Prior to that it's said to have belonged to the Sultan of Granada, and was found somewhere on or near his corpse by Pedro the Cruel, King of Castile, after he or his men stabbed the sultan to death during their conquering of the area. Soon after obtaining the gem, Pedro the Cruel's reign was attacked by his half-brother, and he appealed to Edward the Black Prince, a great knight, for help.
The pair were victorious, and Edward received the gem in thanks. However, Edward also seems to have contracted a mysterious disease around the same time—which caused his death nine years later.Further deaths and mysterious diseases followed, as well as dramatic battles: Henry V is also said to have worn the 'ruby' at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, where he nearly died, and Richard III is rumored to have been wearing it when he died at the Battle of Bosworth.The stone was set into the state crown in the 17th century, but sold it during his brief interruption of the monarchy; the jeweler who bought it sold it back to Charles II after the restoration. Some say the curse continues, with a fire that threatened the jewelers in 1841, and the German bombs that almost hit the Tower during WWII—but for now the jewel's association with blood and destruction seems to be over. Black OrlovThe early history of the Black Orlov diamond is steeped in mystery, and likely more than a little fabrication. It is said to have served as the eye of an idol of the god Brahma at a shrine near Pondicherry, India, before being stolen by a monk—a theft that jump-started its curse. Later owners supposedly include two Russian princesses, who both allegedly jumped off buildings not long after acquiring the gem. (One of them was supposedly named Nadia Orlov, which is where the diamond gets its moniker.) A diamond dealer named J.W.
Paris, who is said to have brought the jewel to the U.S., leapt to his death from one of New York’s tallest buildings in 1932.But as the diamond scholar Ian Balfour explains in his book, there's no evidence of black diamonds being found in India, and even if one was discovered in that country it's unlikely it would have been prized, since 'by and large black is not considered an auspicious color among the Hindus.' Plus, no Russian princess named Nadia Orlov has even been found to exist.But that hasn't stopped the gunmetal-colored gem from being prized by its owners, notably a New York dealer named Charles F. Winson, who bought the diamond and placed it in a spectacular setting surrounded by 108 diamonds and dangling from a necklace of 124 other diamonds. Winson sold the diamond in 1969 and it's been owned by a succession of private individuals since. Sancy DiamondFor some, the pear-shaped is believed be saddled with a vicious curse that brings violent death on anyone who owns the gem.
(Others say it lends invincibility, provided it was acquired under honest circumstances.) The diamond is said to have been mined in Golconda, India and reached Europe by the 14th century, where it served in the crowns of several French and English kings. Many of these kings—including Burgundy's Charles the Bold, England's Charles I, and France's Louis XVI—suffered gruesome deaths not long after coming into contact with the gem.The supposed curse even extended to their underlings: According to one legend, a courier who was transporting the gem for Henry IV was robbed and murdered and the stone recovered from his stomach during the autopsy.
(He had swallowed it for safekeeping). The gem was stolen during the French Revolution, but later recovered, and is now on display at the Louvre, where its greatest danger seems to be causing minor injuries resulting from neck-craning and tourist jostling. The RegentLike most of the other gems on this list, the Regent was mined in India, in the early 1700s. But in a morbid twist, the gem is supposed to have been stolen from the mine by a slave who hid it in a self-inflicted wound in his leg.
The slave and an English sea captain then planned to smuggle the gem out of the country, but the captain had other ideas—he drowned the slave and sold the jewel himself—but, as the story goes, the slave laid a curse on the gem as he was dying.An English governor in Madras named Thomas Pitt bought the pale-blue diamond and sold it to the French Regent Philippe II of Orleans in 1717, which is when it received its name. It was stolen, alongside the Sancy, during the French Revolution, but recovered a few months later. The ill-fated Napoleon I later set it in the handle of his sword. Both the sword and the Sancy are now on display at the Louvre.This list first ran in 2015 and was republished in 2019. A24Isaac was a bit of a rebel growing up, admittedly even getting expelled from a private school in seventh grade. It’s pretty extensive.'
I'd petted some animals I wasn't supposed to pet,” Isaac Details. “The school was built around this guy's ranch, and there was a big wall, and we never knew what was on the other side. Me and my friend jumped over and found all these exotic animals—guard emus and the craziest tiny little beavers.
We just started petting them all. Why wouldn't you? But the guy complained.'
And that’s not all. 'I sprayed a fire extinguisher in the gym and defaced a mural. Wrote curse words on all the stairs up to the library, like s.t, f.k, a., all the way to the top step. Yeah, it was just stupid, stupid,” Isaac added. Oscar Isaac attended Juilliard.While he may have acted out in his youth, Isaac took his acting career very seriously. He participated in several stage productions while living in Miami, where he grew up (his family relocated from Guatemala when Oscar was just a few months old) and he was a musician as well.
He ultimately put the music on hold when he was accepted into the acting program at the prestigious Juilliard school in 2001. During his time there, he was classmates with Jessica Chastain, his future co-star in 2014's A Most Violent Year—although she later she couldn’t remember when they met. Oscar Isaac played in various punk bands in the 1990s.When Isaac was pursuing music before his admission to Juilliard, he played in a number of bands with names that included Petrified Frogs, Closet Heterosexuals, The Worms, as well as a few Florida-based ska groups. Oscar Isaac was an orderly at the hospital where his dad worked.Before becoming an actor, Isaac worked at the hospital where his father was a pulmonologist. While speaking to, he explained the job included “taking people to do X-rays, bringing the deceased down to the morgue.”“When I applied to Juilliard, they asked, ‘What other jobs have you done that qualifies you?’ I put the hospital down, because you get to see the extremes of humanity there—life and death,” Isaac explained.
Oscar Isaac beat out some big-name actors to land the lead in the Coen brothers's Inside Llewyn Davis.For Inside Llewyn Davis, the Coen brothers movie that earned Isaac his first Golden Globe nomination, the actor beat out some pretty big names for the part including Ryan Reynolds, Casey Affleck, and Michael Fassbender. Affleck has since spoke of his failed audition, he had to learn to sing and play guitar for the role, two skills he ultimately couldn’t perfect. Oscar Isaac got his uncle a role in Star Wars.One of the most impressive things Isaac has done throughout his career is probably scoring his uncle, a Star Wars superfan with no acting experience, a part in The Force Awakens.
While a guest on The Tonight Show With Jimmy Fallon, Isaac how his uncle came to visit the set, bringing along custom-made T-shirts for everyone. This act of Star Wars kindness ultimately won over director J.J. Abrams, who asked him if he wanted to be an extra in the film. Dolphins are known for being smart, playful creatures that can learn to perform impressive tricks. But you might not know that dolphins are also champion nappers who have helped the U.S. Navy protect nuclear warheads. Here are 15 facts about the cute, friendly cetaceans.
Dolphins are excellent nappers.Since dolphins can't breathe underwater, they need to swim up to the ocean's surface to get air. So how do they sleep without drowning? Essentially, dolphins are champion power nappers. Rather than sleep for several hours at a time, they of their brain for 15 to 20 minutes at a time, and they take these 'naps' several times each day.
By resting one hemisphere of their brain at a time, dolphins can continue swimming, breathing, and watching for predators 24/7. Dolphins communicate with clicks and whistles. IStockDolphins communicate with one another underwater by making a variety of vocalizations. To find prey and navigate the ocean, they make clicking sounds, and they 'speak' to other dolphins by whistling. Dolphins also produce loud burst-pulse sounds when they feel excited or aggressive, such as when they need to scare off a nearby shark. Some female dolphins also produce a burst-pulse to reprimand their offspring, called calves, for bad behavior.
But dolphin language remains a mystery.Although marine scientists have studied and recorded dolphin vocalizations for decades, many aspects of the animals’ language and how they communicate are still unknown. Scientists have not yet broken down the of dolphin sounds, and they're still searching for a Rosetta Stone that links the animals' vocalizations to their behavior.
Hope you guys like this, thanks so much for reaching 4K subs, this means a lot to me. Comedy about two aliens that land in our back yard in their UFO, and then reside in our house. A lone stranger broadcasts fragments of life he has experienced from different time and space, hoping to make a connection and communicate with other beings of life. Like a time capsule, the. Did you always wish that you could help the injured alien? Well, you can't.those guys are jerks. You CAN however, save Glork. Glork replaces the alien from the vanilla game. After (if) you help him out he will join your quest. You'll need subtitles on to see what he is saying and even then you might not know what he is saying. For My Alien Friend is for the most part, successful in communicating its narrator’s perspectives to the audience. The words people have spoken previously often resurface in later moments of the film with a new or more nuanced meaning, and unrelated quotes often overlap into one large mass communication. My alien friend.
By using new technologies—including algorithms and high-frequency recorders that work underwater—scientists hope to finally unlock the mystery of the dolphin language. Dolphins use echolocation to navigate.To know where they are in relation to other objects and animals, dolphins use echolocation (a.k.a. Biological sonar). After emitting a series of high-pitched clicks, they listen for the echoes to bounce off their surroundings. Based on these echoes, dolphins can judge where they are in space and determine the size and shape of nearby objects.
Besides helping dolphins evade predators, echolocation allows them to trap, catch, and eat fish and squid. Dolphins make friends with other dolphins. IStockDolphins are highly social, and scientists are still discovering fascinating details about how the aquatic mammals socialize with one another. In 2015, scientists at Florida Atlantic University's Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute published research in the Marine Mammal Science journal about the social networks of dolphins.
After spending over six years tracking 200 bottlenose dolphins in Florida's Indian River Lagoon, the scientists discovered that dolphins have friends. Instead of with the dolphins around them, the animals actually segregate themselves into friend groups. Just like humans, dolphins seem to prefer the company of certain peers more than others. Each dolphin responds to its own name.Dolphins aren't swimming around with name tags, but every dolphin has its own unique whistle.
Scientists believe that dolphins use these for life, and female dolphins may even teach their calves their whistles before they're born. Dolphins use their signature whistles to call out to one another and may be able to remember other dolphins' whistles after decades apart. There are 44 different dolphin species. IStockDepending on their species, most female dolphins (called cows) carry their babies for nine to 17 months before giving birth to a calf. Interestingly, calves are born tail first, rather than head first, so they don't drown during the birthing process. After nursing for one to two years, a calf typically with its mother for the next one to seven years, before mating and having its own calves. A dolphin's skin can be regenerated every two hours.If you've ever swum with dolphins, you know their skin looks and feels super smooth and sleek.
There's a reason for that—a dolphin's epidermis (outer layer of skin) can be sloughed off and replaced with new skin cells as often as. Because their skin regenerates so often, it stays smooth and, as most scientists believe, reduces drag as they swim. Navy trains dolphins to protect nuclear weapons.
Brien Aho, U.S. Navy/Getty ImagesDespite dolphins' general friendliness, some of them are trained for combat.
The Navy Marine Mammal Program at San Diego's Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) trains dozens of bottlenose dolphins (as well as sea lions) to help the U.S. In the past, the U.S. Military has used dolphins in conflicts in Vietnam and the Persian Gulf. Today, thanks to their intelligence, speed, and echolocation skills, dolphins are to find enemy swimmers, locate underwater mines, and guard nuclear arsenals. Dolphins are not the same as porpoises.To the untrained eye, dolphins and porpoises look nearly identical, and many people mistakenly think that porpoises are a type of dolphin. But the two species belong to completely different families and differ in their physical attributes.
So how can you tell them apart? Dolphins, which are usually bigger than porpoises, typically have and curved dorsal fins. Porpoises, on the other hand, have more triangular dorsal fins as well as spade-shaped (rather than conical) teeth.
Hunting, overfishing, and rising ocean temperatures threaten dolphins.Some dolphin species are endangered or functionally extinct (like China's ) due to hunting, overfishing, and pollution. Although dolphin meat is high in mercury, the animals are still hunted for their meat and eaten in parts of Japan and the Faroe Islands of Denmark. Overfishing means that dolphins' food sources are shrinking, and some dolphins get caught up in fishing nets and die. Additionally, climate change and rising ocean temperatures are driving some fish and squid away from their natural habitats, putting dolphins' main food source. A superpod can consist of more than 1000 dolphins. IStockDolphins live in groups, called pods, that typically contain dozens or hundreds of dolphins. By swimming in a, dolphins work together to hunt prey, evade predators, and sick or injured members.
But different pods can also merge, forming a superpod of more than 1000 dolphins. Superpods are typically temporary and occur in parts of the ocean with plentiful food (and less competition for tasty squid). The oldest dolphin in captivity lived to the age of 61.Dolphin lifespan varies greatly by species. Most dolphins in the wild live for a few decades, while those in captivity have a drastically reduced lifespan and may live for only a few years. So it's all the more shocking that the oldest dolphin in captivity lived to be a sexagenarian. Nellie, a bottlenose dolphin who lived in a marine entertainment in Florida, was born in 1953. She appeared on TV shows and commercials and for the park's attendees before passing away in 2014.